Discussion on the design principle of human-machin

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A preliminary study on the design principles of human-machine interface of CNC machine tools

CNC machine tools are important tools of modern manufacturing technology. This paper starts with the concept and research direction of human-machine interface design, fully considers human factors, and preliminarily discusses the design principles of human-machine interface of CNC machine tools

CNC machine tool is a high-tech mechatronic product. It is a programmable general-purpose processing equipment composed of CNC device, servo drive device, machine tool body and other auxiliary devices. It is widely used in various fields of processing and manufacturing industry. Compared with general machine tools and special machine tools, CNC machine tools are most suitable for processing parts with complex structure and high precision requirements, as well as the production of multi variety and small batch parts with frequent product updates and short production cycle requirements. Contemporary CNC machine tools are developing in the direction of high speed, high precision, intelligence, multi-function and high reliability. The man-machine interface design of CNC machine tools directly affects its working efficiency and operating comfort. Because the good man-machine interface is simple and effective, and has the guiding function, it makes users feel happy and enhance their interest, so as to improve the use efficiency

human machine interface is the operation mode of human-machine interaction, that is, the medium for users and machines to transmit information to each other, including information input and output. Human machine interface design should be studied in combination with multidisciplinary knowledge such as psychology, ergonomics, computer linguistics, art design, intelligent human machine interface, sociology and anthropology. Its development trend is also towards a more humanized and high-tech direction

some scholars believe that human-machine interface design can be understood as human-machine interface design in a broad sense and human-machine interface design in a narrow sense. In a narrow sense, human-machine interface is the human-machine interface in computer system, also known as human-machine interface and user interface. It is the cross research field of computer science and psychology, graphic art, cognitive science and ergonomics. It is the medium for transferring and exchanging information between people and computers, and the comprehensive operating environment provided by computer system to users. From the perspective of human-machine interface in a broad sense, it mainly studies the rationality of the relationship between human and machine. The "person" in the human-computer interface refers to the person who is the main body of work, including operators, decision-makers, etc. Human physiological characteristics, psychological characteristics and human adaptability are important research directions. "Machine" in man-machine interface refers to all objects controlled by human, including all products and engineering systems operated and used by human. The design of "machine" that meets people's requirements and characteristics is an important issue in the design of man-machine interface. The man-machine interface of CNC machine tools can be divided into software man-machine interface and hardware man-machine interface

1. Design principle of NC machine tool software interface

the role of software in NC machine tool is very important, and its user interface directly affects the working efficiency and effect of NC machine tool. The design principles of NC machine tool software interface can be summarized as follows:

(1) consistency principle

The consistency principle of software human-computer interface mainly refers to the similar interface appearance, layout, human-computer interaction mode and information display format between different systems and within the application system. The consistency principle helps users learn the operation of machine tools and reduce the error rate when using them

(2) provide information feedback

information feedback refers to the response of the machine tool to the user's operation, which can indicate whether the user's operation is accepted by the machine tool, whether it is correct, and how the operation effect is. The feedback methods can be text, graphics, sound, etc

(3) maintain the rationality of interface space layout

the layout of interface space should be concise and clear. Designers should design an interface that can bring convenience to users based on their understanding of real objects. For example, in the graphical interface of CNC drilling machine cnc5000v200 control system software, there are three functionally independent processes: operate, program, control. Each process serves the operators, programmers and hypervisors of the system respectively. Each process has its own menu line. The menu under the menu line is a drop-down menu with its own sub menu. The submenu can be selected for the next operation

(4) make rational use of colors and graphics

the use of color on the interface can better prompt operations, but also alleviate the visual fatigue of operators. Generally, no more than 3 ~ 5 colors are used. For example, in the graphical interface of the CNC drilling machine cnc5000v200 control system software, the highlight indicates the activated process. The activated process has its own color and is displayed as the foreground of the screen. Operation corresponds to green, program corresponds to dark blue, and control corresponds to light blue. Graphics have the advantages of intuition, image and large amount of information when used in interior parts. Using graphics in the interface can enhance the understandability, learning and usability of operation

(5) choose a suitable font and size

in an interface, it is better not to have too many font types, and it is not suitable to choose fonts with too complex or weak font types. The more concise and clear, the better the recognition. For example, the aspect ratio of characters can be taken as 2:1 or 1:1 for clear recognition

2. Design principle of hardware interface of CNC machine tools

because CNC machine tools can obtain this kind of performance at a more affordable price than all carbon fiber reinforced materials, digital technology is applied to realize the direct control of the executive motion sequence and motion displacement of the machine tools, and the transmission structure of traditional machine tools is cancelled or partially cancelled, so the mechanical structure is also greatly simplified. The design principles of hardware man-machine interface of CNC machine tools can be summarized as follows:

(1) design principles of machine tool appearance color. The machine tool is fixed and the working atmosphere is calm, so the color should not be too exciting and exciting, nor too dull, and the operator should be happy at work. Generally, colors with low purity and high lightness are suitable. Colors with stimulating and exciting effects should not be used in a large area, but they should have appropriate contrast effects. Generally, decorative ribbons, panel colors and vigilant colors are used to form contrast with the main body. For large machine tools and equipment, it is not suitable to use too light colors, such as the color with a little neutral gray, but the volatile materials in these materials can be continuously released in the process of vehicle use to produce a strong and stable visual sense. At the same time, multi-color configuration can be used to avoid the overall dark color, so as to achieve the effect of stable, vivid and harmonious metal price performance in 2013. Some machine tools have a long vertical shape with a sense of towering and instability. In order to achieve visual stability, lines or ribbons can be used to horizontally segment the bed, and the illusion of segmentation can be used to adjust the visual sense of size proportion, so as to increase the sense of stability

(2) the design principle of machine tool appearance scale and proportion. The scale and proportion between the main parts of the machine tool, as well as between them and the whole machine tool structure, is very important for the modeling design of the machine tool. For example, when determining the basic size of the machine tool, the principle of "golden section" is applied. The ratio of height to length of the machine tool is 0.1618, which makes the outline of the machine tool more compact, the size relationship of various parts of the machine tool more coordinated, and increases the aesthetic feeling of the machine tool shape. The machine tool takes the horizontal line as the benchmark of the overall layout, and each part is divided by the horizontal line. The horizontal line should not be irregular, irregular or hierarchical. It should have strict levels, be unified and coordinated, and increase the sense of precision, regularity and stability for the machine tool. There are few vertical division lines of the machine tool, which makes the horizontal division of the machine tool more prominent. The vertical dividing line should be concise, regular and generous. In addition, avoid too many concave and convex parts on the surface of the machine tool to prevent the accumulation of oil and dust, which is not easy to clean

(3) layout principle of machine tool workbench and control panel the height of the main workbench should be designed according to the operating requirements of standing, sitting and sitting/standing posture. The size, shape, category and position of manual manipulators such as handwheels and cranks on the worktable should be designed according to the different functions and ways of use. The control buttons and display instruments on the control panel shall be divided according to the functional areas, and meet the requirements of display control consistency. Their position, height and arrangement shall conform to the human-machine relationship, so that people can easily operate and observe. For example, the display instrument should be placed within the range of 0 ~ 30 ° downward horizontal vision and 15 ° left and right vertical vision. The color of the buttons on the control panel is classified according to the purpose, for example, red indicates danger, stop, prohibition, etc., which can be used for the automatic alarm button and stop button of the lathe. Green means safety, normal, operation, etc. for example, the start button of the machine tool adopts green. On the worktable, located on or beside the manipulator, mark the label code of its function with words or symbols, preferably in white and black


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